Dark ﬁeld lighting was ﬁrst applied in microscopy and was deﬁned by circular light incident on a surface at approximately a 45 degree angle. As commonly used in machine vision today, we also see very low angle DF with incident light as low as 10-15 degrees from the surface (Fig. 2b), as well as from a single direction – and not necessarily just from circular (e.g. – 360 degree) sources.
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